Education System of Indonesia
Units of Education
Paths of Education
National Education System of Indonesia is
generally aimed at elevating the intellectual
life of the nation and developing the Indonesian
people fully, i.e. as people who are devoted
to God, have knowledge and skills, are in
good physical and spiritual health, are
independent and fair, and feel responsible
for their countrymen and nation.
education system also strives to create
a patriotic spirit, strengthen love for
the fatherland, enhance the nation spirit,
social solidarity and awareness of nation
history for the nation heroes, and create
a forward-looking attitude. The learning
and teaching climate has to generate self-confidence
and a learning culture among all layers
of society that induces an attitude and
behavior of creativity, innovative thinking,
and orientation toward the future.
education system has its roots in the Indonesian culture
based on Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution. In the
Law No. 2 of 1989 about National Education System,
the system aims at generating abilities and increasing
the standard of living and dignity of the Indonesian
people in order to achieve the national development
objectives. Based on the Law, the national education
system is identified in terms of units, paths, types,
and levels of education.
Units of Education:
units of education (school or out-of-school)
organize learning and teaching activities,
which are implemented respectively inside
and outside the schools.
Paths of Education:
education system is organized in two different
paths, i.e. school and out-of-school education.
School education is organized in schools
through teaching and learning activities,
which are gradual, hierarchical, and continuous.
Out-of-school education is organized outside
the formal schooling through teaching and
learning activities, which may or may not
be hierarchical and continuous. Education
in the family as an important part of the
national education system is an out-of-school
education and provides religious, cultural,
moral values and skills.
system consists of seven types of education,
they are: (1) General education prioritizes
expansion of general knowledge and improvement
of skills for the student. Specialization
is also needed in the last grade; (2) Vocational/technical
education prepares students in mastering
a number of specific vocational/technical
skill needed for employment; (3) Special
education provides important skills and
abilities for students with physical and/or
mental disabilities; (4) Service-related
education aims at increasing abilities required
for a government official or a candidate
to implement a certain task; (5) Religious
education prepares students to play a role
which demand the mastery of specific knowledge
about religion and related subject; (6)
Academic-oriented education focuses primarily
on improving the mastery of science; and
(7) Professional education prepares students
primarily on mastering specialized or job-related
knowledge and skills.
level of education that includes formal
school system consists of the following
level of education, i.e. basic education,
secondary education, and higher education.
Apart from the levels of education mentioned
above, pre-school education is also provided.
Out-of-school education can be held at the
outside schools and provided by governmental
and non-governmental agencies of private
sector and the community.
Education is a general education of nine
years, i.e. six years of primary and three
years of junior secondary school. Junior
secondary school consists of two types,
namely general junior secondary school and
vocational/technical junior secondary school.
The goal of basic education is to develop
students as individuals, members of society,
citizens and members of mankind, as well
as to prepare them to pursue study in secondary
education. Basic Education is a compulsory
education that providing the learners with
basic knowledge and skills.
addition to the Basic Education, there are
also an Islamic Primary School called Madrasah
Ibtidaiyah, equivalent to Primary School
and an Islamic General Junior Secondary
School called Madrasah Tsanawiyah, equivalent
to General Junior Secondary School managed
and run by the Ministry of Religious Affairs.
education is available to graduates of primary
school. The paths of secondary education
include general secondary school, vocational/technical
secondary school, religious secondary school,
service related secondary school, and special
secondary school. Secondary education gives
priority to expanding knowledge and developing
students skills and preparing them
to continue their studies to the higher
level of education or the preparation of
students to enter the world of work and
expanding their professional attitude. The
length of secondary education is three years
for general secondary education and three
or four years for vocational/technical education.
addition to the Secondary Education, there
is also an Islamic General Senior Secondary
School called Madrasah Aliyah, equivalent
to General Senior Secondary School managed
and run by the Ministry of Religious Affairs.
education is an extension of secondary education
consisting of academic and professional
education. Academic education is mainly
aimed at mastering science, technology,
and research, whereas professional education
is more aimed at developing practical skills.
Institutions involved in higher education
are of the following types: academics, polytechnics,
school of higher learning, institutes, and
universities. The length of higher education
is three years for diploma program and four
years for bachelors degree program.
After completion the bachelors degree
program, students may continue to pursue
the masters degree program for two
years and finally may continue to pursue
the doctorate program for three years.
education aims at stimulating physical and
mental growth of children out-side of the
family circle before entering primary education
that can be held in format school system
or out-of-school education. Among the types
of pre-school education available are kindergartens
at the formal school, playgroups and day-care
centers at the out-of-school. Kindergarten
is provided for children age 5 to 6 years
for one to two years of education, while
playgroups and day-care centers are for
children at least 3 years old.
of Out-of-School Education consists of general
education, religious education service-related
education, and vocational education. Out-of-School
Education may include courses, group learning
such as packet A, B Income Generating Program,
or any other option like apprenticeship.